Indians under colonial rule who lived in communities had crown protections, but they were considered legal minors. According to one of his biographers, it was entirely due to Philip that the Indies were brought under crown control, remaining Spanish until the wars of independence in the early nineteenth century and Catholic to the present era. Each order set up networks of parishes in the various regions provincessited in existing Indian settlements, where Christian churches were built and where evangelization of the indigenous was based. His execution made him a martyr of the period preceding the Philippine Revolution. Hesitation in pressing the advantage home proved fateful; French forces regrouped, pushing the Spanish back towards the border. This event had notable repercussions in Italy. Hostility left over from Spanish activities on the Chesapeake in the s may have affected the Virginia colonists' early dealings with the Powhatan Confederation.
Indian noblemen were thus crucial to the governance of the huge indigenous population.
Unit 1 - Spain in the New World to 1600
Bristol Mariners seem to have visited Canada in the s, and Christopher Columbus may have learned of, and been inspired by, their voyages. In the Indies, corregimiento initially functioned to bring control over Spanish settlers who exploited the indigenous populations held in encomiendain order to protect the shrinking indigenous populations and prevent the formation of an aristocracy of conquerors and powerful settlers. There was some economic development in the Indies to supply food, but a diversified economy did not emerge. Charles promulgated the New Laws of to limit the power of the conqueror group to form a hereditary aristocracy that might challenge the power of the crown. The Spanish also helped Equatorial Guinea achieve one of the continent's highest literacy rates and developed a good network of health care facilities.